Soil testing | total organic carbon | soil testing methods | Fertilizer dosage calculation

 

Soil testing
Soil testing



In recent times, farmers have been required to carry out soil tests properly and incorporate the appropriate management practices to be adopted in cultivation depending on the nature of the soil, which can reduce the cost of cultivation and increase net income.  The insights in the Soil Testing Analysis Paper given to farmers after soil testing can be very useful for farmers on how to improve soil health in line with the crop to be grown.  If farmers carefully observe the soil test paper, they will know the nature of their soil color, hydrogen index, organic carbon, available nitrogen and available phosphorus.  Nature of the soil: The nature of the soil helps to indicate the approximate composition of the soil, alluvial and sandy loam.  Alluvial and clay soils are rich in solids.  So the water holding capacity is high.  But the wind is low.  The air is good in sandy soils.  But the water retention property is low.  In clay and alluvial soils, the size of the particles, the spaces are small and when water comes in, the spaces are filled with water and the air escapes.  In sandy soils the size of the particles and the large spaces allow the air to infiltrate and expel the water quickly, even when filled with water.
Dividing salinity indices take into account the nature of the soil.  Depending on the physical properties of the soil, in black soils where sewage is a problem, it is a good idea to learn a special system for sewage and apply organic fertilizers as a matter of duty.  Sand can also be provided to the soil wherever possible on a permanent basis to increase the percentage of sand.  In soils where the sand is high and the soil is waterlogged, fertile pond soil can be used to solve the problem to some extent.  For light soils and heavy soils, farmers can observe the precautions to be taken in water ownership and fertilizer ownership and get adequate yields in the respective crops.

Hydrogen index (pH):
Hydrogen index directly affects soil fertility.  The hydrogen index indicates the acidic, alkaline and neutral properties of the soil.  The hydrogen index ranges from 1-14.  The hydrogen index is neutral from 6.60 to 7.39.  In this condition the plants that have a lot of nutrients are converted into an intake form.

Acid soils with a hydrogen index less than this are considered alkaline soils.  Plants cannot grow when the hydrogen index is on the extreme or extreme alkaline side.  The nutrients in the soil do not dissolve and become available to the plants.  Keeping the hydrogen index close to 7.0 is very important in agriculture.  From time to time the hydrogen index should be neutralized by adding organic matter to the soil or not adding green manure.

Hydrogen index (pH) classification
  1.  Less acidic than 6.59
  2.  6.60 - 7.39 Neutral
  3.  7.40 - 7.89 low alkali
  4.  Alkali between 7.90 - 8.40
  5.  More than 8.40 -.  Excess alkali (carburetor)

Salinity Index (EC):
This salinity index determines the amount of water-soluble salinity present in the soil.  If the salinity index is higher than the normal level, the soil will become saline.  Soil physical properties are not suitable for crops.  Although the land is fertile, crops do not grow well due to high salinity

Appropriate care should be taken to ensure that the salinity does not increase and the soils become inflamed while using fresh water for the crop, providing adequate drainage and increasing the use of organic fertilizers.

Classification of salt quantities
Classification of salinity (m moss / cm)
  Light soils.  Medium soils Weight soils up to 1,00.  Up to 1,59.  Normal until 2.00

  1.01 - 3.00 1,60-1.60 2.01-6.00 Germination is difficult

  > 3.0> 4.50> 6.0
Damage to all piers

Organic carbon;  The percentage of organic carbon is determined before the organic matter in the soil is known.

Organic Organic Range Levels:

 S.no.  Level.         Organic Organic Range
1.        Low                 0.50
2.        Medium.         0.6-0.75
3.        High.               > 0.75.

Multiply the percentage of organic carbon in 1,7 by the percentage of organic matter in the soil.  Food is the organic matter for the micro-organisms in the soil.  Humans are formed in the process of decomposing organic matter as part of their biological functions, which combine with human soil particles to effectively increase soil structure by creating proper spaces between soil particles.  In addition, humus is the main source of carbon and nitrogen needed for plant nutrition, which is depleted after human salts are released.  Microbes will die if they stop supplying organic matter to the soil.  The decomposition process smoothly transforms the nutrients in the arable soil into a beautiful form for the plant.  Soil structure gradually deteriorates.  Chemical fertilizers cannot improve soil structure.  Therefore, if only chemical fertilizers are used, the soil will deteriorate quickly.  Organic manure should be applied at the rate of 4 tons per acre at low soil level and 2.50 tons per acre at medium level.

Fertilizer dose and nutrient content from fertilizer can be easily calculated with these formulas depending on the nutrient percentage.

Urea = nitrogen dose × 2.2
Ammonium sulphate = nitrogen dose×4.8
Calcium phosphate = phosphorus dose× 6.3
Murate of potash = potash dose × 1.7
Superphosphate = potash dose×6.3

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