Intensive Agriculture | Subsistence farming | shifting cultivation | Primitive subsistence farming

 Subsistence farming


Subsistence farming is classified as Two types :- 

1 intensive subsistence agriculture

2.primitive  subsistence agriculture 


1.Intensive  subsistence agriculture farming:- 


● small plots are used 

● large amount of labor

● High yield 

● maximum utilization of land v

● no heavy machinery 


Raghu farm's his small plot manually and thus he needs to to expand a large amount of Labor tending to his farm 

For a small area the yield is very high as th farmer utilize the land maximum crops generally produced consumption by family 

Heavy machinery is generally not used this kind farming people living intensely populated region's practice intensive subsistence agriculture


Main Areas :- 

✓ This type of agriculture is practiced in highly populated areas.  

✓ Examples:- India, Northern China, Japan, North Korea, Pakistan and South - East Asia.


2.Primitive subsistence agriculture:- 


Primitive subsistence farming Includes 

1.shifting cultivation or slash cultivation and burn farming 

2. nomadic herding


1.Shifting cultivation :-


1.Cutting trees in the selected area :- 

✓ A patch of land is identified in the forest 

✓ The first step constitutes the tree

✓ In patch of land being cut down 


2.Setting the cleared land on fire :- 

✓ The tree less patch of land is then set on fire 

✓ Now this releases rich nutrients into the soil 

✓ Makeing it fertile and suitable for agriculture the seeds are down and Crops are harvested 


3.Sowing seeds :- 

✓ These Crops usually include maize ,yam potato and casava 


4.Crops harvested:- 

✓ Once harvesting is done same patch of land used again 

✓ This cycle goes on for few years until the soil losses all of rich nutrients

✓ Once the soil looses it's Fertility completely the piece of land is abandoned 

✓ New piece of land is identified


✓ This type farming practiced in the thickly forested area Of Amazon basin in Brazil where it is called Roca 

✓ Maxico where it is called milpa tropical Africa and parts of South Asia


In India it is called JHUM cultivation and practices in North Eastern States part's and some regions of   Chota nagpur plateau


✓ Now many countries repeated shifting cultivation as it's harmful to environment and it  leads lost  of  biodiversity 


Another method of primitive subsistence farming

2. Nomadic herding:- 

✓ now nomads  are People who travel from one place to another but why do they travel 

✓ Well this type of journey occurs due to changes in the climate conditions and terrain 

✓ If these become unfavorable The nomads have to move let's take a look at 

✓ The gujjar bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir regions 

✓ The gujjar bakarwal are herds of goat and sheep in the  winter mountain tops are covered with snow b

✓ Therefore they stay in the low hills range 

✓ During summer times when the snow melts they migrate to high mountains which will provide pasture fir their herds.

✓ Thus in order to escape harsh climatic conditions people move one place to another this type migration is called nomadic herding

 ✓ Sheep , goat's ,yak , Camel are the animals which are usually reared by nomad's they provide the nomads with milk meat, wool , hides ,and various other useful product's 

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